Geography 600 Course Journal <p>The is a demonstration of how OJS can be used as a course-based journals, where students submit their work, review each other's writing, and publish the revised results. Each semester is a new issue. It can be a great way to engage students in scholarly communications issues (e.g., peer review) but also in writing assignments for a broader audience.</p> en-US Geography 600 Course Journal Longitudinal subglacial bedform semi-automated mapping and measurement <p>This thesis addresses methodological issues in the morphometric inventorying of relict drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations (longitudinal subglacial bedforms, LSBs) which pose limits to a robust description of LSB morphometry and thus to testing hypotheses of LSB genesis, with implications for postdicting past, and predicting future, ice sheet behavior. Focus is on a) the adequacy of previously used morphometric measurement methods (MMM) (GIS) and b) the development of LSB semi-automated mapping (SAM) methods. Dimensions derived from an ellipse fitted to the LSB footprint based on Euler’s approximation are inaccurate and both these and orientation based on the longest straight line enclosed by the footprint are imprecise. A newly tested MMM based on the standard deviational ellipse performs best. A new SAM method outperforms previous methods. It is based on the analysis of normalized local relief closed contours and on a supervised ruleset encapsulating expert knowledge, published morphometric data and study area LSB morphometry.</p> Marco André Gaspar Jorge Copyright (c) 2017 Author 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 2 Reducing harm through food and work: incorporating food security and peer employment in harm reduction programming <p>Food is usually provided in harm reduction settings, like needle exchanges, low-barrier shelters, and drug consumption rooms. These spaces are often staffed by people who use drugs (PWUD) and/or living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who serve their peers. Yet, there is little comprehensive discussion of how food and peer work fit into organizations with a harm reduction orientation (OHRO) for low-income PWUD/PLWHA. Drawing on 27 semi-structured interviews with OHRO in Greater Vancouver, Canada, this thesis explores the variegated regional landscape of food, peer work, and harm reduction using literatures on harm reduction, poverty management, the shadow state, and foodscapes. Results demonstrate that OHRO are important nodes in low-income PWUD/PLWHA foodscapes, but that they do not systematically integrate food programming with their harm reduction philosophies. Similarly, peer employment is widespread, but organized in ways that can compromise harm reduction goals. I conclude with recommendations to improve food access, and employment for PWUD/PLWHA.</p> Alison Haley McIntosh Copyright (c) 2017 Author 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 2 Seasonal Methane Dynamics in Lakes of the Mackenzie River Delta, Western Canadian Arctic <p>Methane (CH4) dynamics were investigated in lake-waters of the Mackenzie River Delta in 2014 and 2015 to estimate CH4 emissions and evaluate potential drivers of seasonal CH4 dynamics. Water-column CH4 and related variables were measured at end-of-winter and tracked through open-water in up to 43 lakes, plus water-column CH4 oxidation (MOX) and water-to-atmosphere emissions were measured in 6 lakes. Under-ice CH4 accumulations were high by end-of-winter, with levels in some lakes greater than 20 years prior. Water-column CH4 and carbon-quantity are positively related regardless of season, however, relationships between CH4 and carbon-quality are strikingly different between winter and open-water. CH4 is inversely related to pH, which, surprisingly, also negatively affects MOX. MOX is highest at ice-out and decreases over open-water. Based on areal-weighted fluxes, Mackenzie Delta lakes emitted 35.79 Gg of CH4, with 24% occurring at ice-out, and during open-water 50% and 26% respectively occurring via ebullition and diffusion.</p> Christopher Luke Cunada Copyright (c) 2017 Author 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 2 Some of the highlights of our course <p>This is an overview of the course, and a summary of some of the major themes that emerge from reading the student assignments.</p> Mary Brown Copyright (c) 2017 Author 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 2 Effects of bigleaf maple on the growth and morphology of mature conifers in the southern coastal forests of British Columbia <p>The influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) on the growth of mature conifers in the coastal forests of British Columbia has not been previously assessed. I used a paired plot design to evaluate the influence of mature bigleaf maple on the growth and morphology of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Twelve conifer plots including bigleaf maple trees in the center (BLM) were paired with twelve plots that had only conifers present (DF). For the Douglas-fir and western hemlock growing in these plots, the diameter at breast height (DBH), height, age, volume, canopy morphology, site index, stand basal area, tree density and competition index were compared using paired-t tests between BLM and DF plots. Cores taken from Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees were used to assess growth chronologies; and radial growth rates and basal area increment (BAI) were compared between BLM and DF plots. There were no significant differences in tree height, tree age, site index or competition index for both Douglas-fir and western hemlock, and DBH for Douglas-fir, when compared between BLM and DF plots. DBH was greater for western hemlock in BLM as compared to DF plots. Both Douglas-fir and western hemlock that were growing next to bigleaf maple had significantly higher radial growth rates and BAI than Douglas-fir and western hemlock surrounded by conifers only. BLM plots did not have a different standing wood volume (total or conifer-only) than DF plots. My findings suggest that the inclusion of bigleaf maple in conifer stands could enhance biodiversity without negatively affecting timber production.</p> Maciej Jerzy Jamrozik Copyright (c) 2017 Author 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 2